Pega Infinity Development Best Practices

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Pega Infinity Development Best Practices

Description Guidelines for Pega Platform developers to create efficient, sustainable, and guardrail-compliant applications
Version as of 8.5
Application Pega Platform
Capability/Industry Area Enterprise Application Development

Pega Infinity - Development Best Practices
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This document provides application development best practices for Pega Platform™ developers to create efficient, sustainable, and guardrail-compliant applications. We collated and consolidated the following list of best practices from the development experiences shared by lead system architects, consultants, and development teams.

The following list of Pega Infinity development best practices is sorted by impact category and then by severity if developers do not follow guidelines. You can click the table headers to sort the list by rule type or impact category. Note that this list excludes Cosmos development best practices. When new best practices are encountered, this list will be updated to capture the new information.

Rule type Impact Category Best Practice Severity
UI rules Update Non-Autogenerated, custom, or hand-coded rules are not likely to be cross-browser-compliant or responsive. Move to autogenerated UI components for better performance, security, ease of maintenance, and support for cross-browser consistency/responsiveness. Replace custom JavaScript, HTML, JSP, and other code with standard features available in Pega Infinity. Do not create non-autogenerated records, such as sections, HTML rules, HTML fragments, and text files. All screens should be generated for JSP (including Rule-HTML-Property, Rule-HTML-Fragment, and Rule-Obj-HTML). H
UI rules Update Pega Infinity has controls that support new features, such as offline capability, responsiveness, and cross-browser support. Deprecated or custom controls do not have these capabilities, so you should update to controls shipped with Pega Infinity. Replace custom or deprecated controls with the latest Pega Infinity controls. If no updated control is available, make custom controls cross-browser and responsive. H
UI rules Update Pega Infinity recommends the skin rule for all styling needs in the application. This reduces maintenance cost and provides flexibility to style consistently, regardless of browser or device. Make applications cross-browser and cross-device-compliant. Inline styles and custom CSS must be re-engineered using Pega Infinity skin, mixins, and style formats. H
Data pages Update Do not remove parameters for a data page. Never remove parameters from shipped data pages in the framework layer. The implementation layer might use your data pages with Key,Value; removing a parameter might make referenced rules invalid, causing exceptions in flows. H
Reports Update Do not remove properties from report definitions when they are declared as available, especially in the framework layer. Never remove properties from report definitions that are shipped, even if those properties are not being used. If the implementation layer attempts to re-use a report definition for which properties have been removed, it will impact the referencing rules. H
Data pages Update Avoid adding required parameters to old rules. Avoid adding new required parameters to shipped data pages in framework layer. The implemention layer might use these data pages, and adding new parameters might make their referenced rules invalid, causing exceptions in flows. H
All rules Update Do not block the availability rules in the framework layer. H
All rules Update Replace deprecated rules references with recommended/available rules. Do not use deprecated activity methods. H
All rules Update Do not reference internal Pega rules in implementations. H
All rules Update The use of locatable pages was deprecated in Pega Platform as of the 7.3.1 release. Locatable pages are a legacy feature that is not supported by the Internal Language (IL) assembly. Using locatable pages would require falling back to legacy assemblers that would not utilize the IL assembly optimizations. H
All rules Update Use extensions wherever provided instead of overriding rules. Use Pega rules as-is and append new functionality in your application rules. H
Ruleset Update Only application ruleset validation (ABV) is recommended for ruleset setting. M
All rules Update Pega Infinity has been enhanced with more guardrails and validations and with better coding standards. Some legacy features are no longer supported and must be modified to Pega Infinity standards. Update references such as $ANY or $NONE with appropriate class references. M
Data types Update Pega Infinity has updated Data Management/Modeling features that provide better design and runtime performance. Update these components to new features. There are no auto-update utilities for most of the features in this area. Update old data tables to the new local storage data types to comply with Pega Infinity standards. M
Portal Update Legacy fixed or custom portals are no longer recommended in Pega Infinity, as they do not support cross-browser or responsive design. Debugging tools such as Live UI might not work for these legacy portals. Replace fixed or custom portals that lack responsiveness with Pega Infinity composite portals. L
Delegated rules Update Delegated rules will continue to work after you update to Pega Infinity, but they might need updates to address changes to referencing rules and form changes. Skimming is recommended during update, which might require delegation re-mapping. Rule form changes require business retraining. Update delegated rules wherever required. L
Reports Performance Fetch only the required columns and not all columns from the database. H
Reports Performance Avoid unnecessary JOINS while fetching database records. H
Activity Performance Use data pages backup by RD or Look up rather than using obj-browse. Do not use obj-browse for list of objects. If you use obj-browse, fetch only the column you need and not the entire BLOB. If some BLOB data is used frequently, consider exposing that column. H
UI rules Performance Consider using pagination of records for Memory / Performance optimization based on your specific use case requirements. Pagination should be enabled when fetching records from the database. H
All rules Performance Use Alert logs, PAL, and Log Usage to monitor performance during development, UAT, and performance testing. If you observe performance issues, collaborate with performance tuning experts to resolve those issues. Assess performance load and verify the capacity of your production system. H
Clipboard viewer Performance Identify and remove unnecessary clipboard pages at the end of each process. Redundant pages use JVM memory. H
Reports Performance Verify that the report definition filters load only necessary data to the clipboard. Configuring filters correctly is better than using row visibility conditions to hide rows in a grid. H
Decision tables Performance To avoid slow performance, limit your decision table to no more than 300-500 rows. H
Decision trees Performance To avoid slow performance, limit your decision tree to no more than 300-500 rows. H
Map values Performance To avoid slow performance, limit your decision map rules to no more than 300-500 rows. H
Class Performance Ensure classes are not mapped to more than one purpose database table, such as pr_data or pr_other. Maintenance of exposed properties for more than one type of data prevents appropriate indexes from being used. H
Rule-Obj-Activity Performance Always use Obj methods (rather than RDB methods) to ensure the BLOB and columns are kept in sync. RDB methods should be used only for complex query processing/connecting to an external database. M
Activity Performance Max Records is not automatically specified on the RDB-List method. If the Max Records value is left blank, it defaults to 10,000. Consider specifying a maximum limit for improved query performance. M
All rules Performance Debug Log (oLog) should be implemented properly in activities to debug and write warnings/errors in log files if an exception occurs. When logging log information externally, verify that logged information provides sufficient detail to assist in debugging an issue. By default, the application logs class name, activity name, step, date/time, requestor, and error type. Additional log items might include case ID, case status, and operator. Make sure you do not log sensitive information. Specify appropriate log level settings so that production logs and PDC are not cluttered. System.out.print should be removed or commented after development. M
UI rules Performance Records fetched in memory should be just-in-time rather than persisted throughout the user session. Use appropriate data page scoping. M
Activity Performance If you use a parameter with the OBJ-BROWSE method (to/from/like), define a pre-condition on the step to verify that all required parameters exist before the OBJ- BROWSE method is invoked. M
Agent Performance Use queue processors or job schedulers instead of agents for better performance, resiliency, fault tolerance, and flexibility. M
Class Performance Consider not storing the history of classes in environments where changes will be frequent and you have no business reason to track updates. M
All rules Performance Avoid using large text values in top-level pages. Elastic search indexes all top-level properties when it is enabled on a class. Consider keeping large text values in embed page properties. M
All rules Performance Use wrapper activity to consolidate actions and reduce the number of requests to the server. M
UI rules Performance Enable defer load for tabs/section for faster screen loads. Load data just in time when the end user needs it. M
UI rules Performance JPEG/PNG images should be used only when the image size is greater than 100 x 100 px. For smaller images, consider using Icon font so you avoid time-consuming requests to the server. M
Data pages Performance Load mechanism is executed on every interaction for data page can impact performance. Select this option only when the business use case requires the freshest information. M
Activity Performance Do not use the Infoforced log. Remove unnecessary log messages before check-in. Change the logging level to prevent cluttering of log files and avoid potential performance impact. L
Data transforms Performance Enable "call super-class data transform" checks only if you have a data transform with the same name in the class inheritance tree. Doing so avoids the overhead of looking up to parent classes. L
Access roles Security Implement custom security roles to maintain security requirements. End-user access groups should not grant the PegaRULES:SysAdm4 security role. Roles should default to having least privileges to end-user access groups. H
Reports Security Add appropriate privileges and restrictions to reports to control which user groups can execute a report. H
Activity Security "Allow direct invocation from the client or a service" or "Allow invocation from browser" is unchecked by default. If you enable the "Allow direct invocation from the client or a service" checkbox, you must add a privilege to the activity. H
Workbasket Security Add the appropriate roles to workbasket definitions to control who can process assignments in the workbasket M
Data pages Security Select an appropriate user-level access group for all node-level data pages. Create an access group used specifically for batch processing (data page loading and agent activity processing). M
All rules Maintainability Reduce or eliminate use of duplicate loops in rules such as activity or data transform, which can have significant performance impact.

1. When possible, do as much processing as possible in one pass to avoid looping over the same data multiple times. .

2. When looping over a data structure, be aware that the larger the list, the more times processing will occur. For example, you can use a report definition "Class Join" feature to gather data in one database call rather than making separate database call for every result returned. If services are called within a loop, use data pages to cache results to improve overall performance.

Database Maintainability Do not use custom store procedures to accomplish a task. H
Data transforms Maintainability Data transforms should not use the pxExecuteAnActivity function to call an activity. Evaluate whether the called activity can be transformed to a data transform. H
Section Maintainability 'Create work' action class input parameters should not be hard-coded. Consider using dynamic class referencing to improve maintenance and extensibility. H
Flow Maintainability To create the implementation layer case type, select other option and use DCR to specify the class name rather than selecting the case type in create case smart shape. H
All rules Maintainability Consider deprecating rules to post warnings on usage. Provide documentation on the deprecated rules. H
All rules Maintainability Avoid creating custom-coded rules. If no better option is available, then ensure custom-coded rules, such as activities with java steps, non-autogenerated UI rules, and functions, are final. H
Class Maintainability Consider enabling 'Propagate schema changes to child classes', for work classes to avoid explicit optimization at the customer end. M
All rules Maintainability When creating a rule such as an activity or data transform, use parameters to clearly define the inputs and outputs so system architects understand how that activity is used. If the activity needs a specific value to process, rather than passing a complete page reference, pass a scalar parameter. M
All rules Maintainability When creating a new rule that is similar to an existing rule, minimize duplicate code. If you are changing only values (but not changing the code) in a rule, refactor the rule to use parameters instead of creating multiple versions of the same rule. If the same code is used multiple times, create well-documented reusable assets that can be called from different places rather than copying that code. Determine the reusability of the rule, as this determines where the rule should be placed in the Class and RuleSet hierarchy. M
All rules Maintainability Consider your rule's Applies-to class carefully. Put rules in a higher parent class if you anticipate reusing it across all children or if you want to avoid duplicate rules. If a rule is not reusable, put it in the class where it is used. Do not flood abstract classes with rules that can be used only in particular concrete classes. If a rule is needed in multiple concrete classes, do not copy the rule across to the sibling. Instead, promote the rule to the child class and withdraw the original rule to avoid duplicate code. M
Activity Maintainability Do not use Page-New methods to create a page that you are planning to use as step page for Obj-Open/Obj-Browse/RDB-List/RDB-Open. These methods create the specified page by itself. M
Activity Maintainability Do not use hard-coded reusable values in properties such as URL or classes (activity class etc) in activities. Rather, use data pages/decision tables/map values. M
All rules Maintainability The name of a workbasket should clearly identify the purpose of the workbasket. M
Flow Maintainability Business rule flow should be neat and readable, as it can be exposed to business users. Add annotation to improve readability. M
Flow actions Maintainability Flow Action Name should describe the functions of the flow action. For example: AttachAFile, Notify External. M
Flow Maintainability Utilities should serve a business purpose. Instead of adding one utility that does an entire step, separate the utility into separate smaller utilities, and use these smaller utilities as individual identity in the flows. This makes the flows descriptive and readable. M
Flow Maintainability The number of Smart Shapes (excluding connectors) should not be more than 15 per work flow. M
Flow Maintainability Flow implementation should be model-driven. For example, identify and use decision rules in a flow rather than an activity. This will make the logic of the flow clearer. M
UI rules Maintainability When possible, set the label value for a control from the short description for its property rather than from inline labels, which increase maintenance costs. M
Property Maintainability Do not duplicate properties if you can avoid it.

1. If multiple classes use a property, define the property once where it is accessible to all classes that need it.

2. If one of two classes that need to use the property do not share a parent (for instance, one is Embed- and the other is not), you can copy the property. Be sure to use the exact same name.

Property Maintainability Avoid copying data.

1. During processing, data should exist in only one place. In Pega, that means in a single property.

2. If user input has a cascading effect (setting a value in one place creates defaults for a number of other values), then you can copy data if the effect is one-directional. In other words, you can copy data only when you can define it using something like a declare expression. Verify that you do not create circular dependencies when you copy data.

Property Maintainability Property types should be selected from the type dropdown rather than specified in text. M
All rules Maintainability Add test rules to a separate test application that is built on a target application. M
All rules Maintainability Remove all unused rules before you move to production. M
Activity Maintainability The Page-New method with an empty class initializes the page with the class defined in Pages and Classes. Consider using dynamic class referencing for easy maintenance and extensibility. M
Flow actions Maintainability Use a validate rule to perform data validations, and invoke the same validate rule from the flow action. An activity doing the same in post processing using Obj-Validate or Property-Set-Messages does not support extensibility. M
Navigation Maintainability Control action should not be configured using hard-coded class. Consider using dynamic class referencing for easy maintenance and extensibility. M
Data transforms Maintainability Consider modularizing a data transform so that it does not require more than 20 steps. This improves reusability and unit-level quality. M
UI rules Maintainability Use WHEN rules rather than expressions in section/layout/control visibility conditions if the same condition is used in multiple places for easy maintenance and extensibility. M
Data transforms Maintainability Inline Java is always overhead in terms of maintenance. Consequently, consider using data page or data transform. RUF is recommended if unavoidable. M
Section Maintainability When deciding whether to use a section or to nest a dynamic layout, minimize the number of sections that you create to improve performance and maintenance.

Use a section if:

  • You plan to use it in multiple places.
  • Its contents must be refreshed from the server more often than the content around it.
  • The data requires a table/grid layout but you want to include it in same layout as the rest of the UI to share a container format, style, or header.
  •  Its content uses a different step page than the UI around it.

In other cases, nest a dynamic layout.

Data transforms Maintainability Do not use more than five levels of nested steps in data transforms. M
Declare-On Change Maintainability Do not use a Complex Java Expression under When condition in the Conditions field of the On Change Properties tab, M
Activity Maintainability Use automation rules instead of activity rules when you create an API. M
Activity Maintainability Give precedence to a local variable over a property if scope is defined only within the activity. If local variables are defined but are not being used in the activity, consider removing them. L
Activity Maintainability Provide comments to describe the context of significant steps in an activity to improve readability and maintainability, L
Activity Maintainability Comment out activity step lines to prevent them from executing at run time during testing. Commented lines should usually be removed before merging your rules. You may want to keep commented lines if they are helpful when debugging or if they help someone understand the activity, L
All rules Maintainability Document your rules when the purpose or use of a rule is not clear to improve maintainability. Document what the rule does in the description and how the rule is used in Usage. The rule label should indicate the purpose of the rule in human-readable form. L
Activity Maintainability Activity names should start with a verb/noun. L
All rules Maintainability When defining parameters, select the appropriate data type and provide a meaningful description/purpose. L
Activity Maintainability Activities should not exceed 20 steps. L
Property Maintainability Property names should be based on nouns or noun phrases that describe the property. L
Declare expressions Maintainability Adopt a naming convention for properties designed to be computed in Declare Expression rules. Create Declare Expression rules early, using stub or dummy expressions. By following naming conventions, developers can easily identify declare expression properties and can avoid setting values procedurally.

The use of reference properties in an expression's target or page context can result in unpredictable behavior. Consider using non-referenced properties instead.

All rules Maintainability You must provide appropriate comments when checking in a rule after modification. Include a work item, such as a change request or error number, at the beginning of the description of the change. For example: "US-00001 – Removed pyWorkPage Page Delete Step from Activity." L
Data transforms Maintainability Consider adding comments to the data transform for easier readability, maintenance, and potential reuse. L
Data transforms Maintainability Data transforms should not have disabled steps under most circumstances. Review and remove disabled steps if they are not required. L
Activity Maintainability If an Activity rule is required, set an appropriate 'Activity type’ in the Security tab to remove warnings. For example: "Utility (default), Validate, Load Data Page." L
Data transforms Maintainability Avoid using (<APPEND>) (<CURRENT>) to improve readability. Consider using 'Append and map to'. L
UI rules Functionality Do not use horizontal scrolling. Minimize vertical scrolling. H
Property Functionality Use Date Time rather than Date or TimeOfDay types for properties that are part of persistent objects in your application. Avoid using Date property types in persistent objects, even if your application is used in only a single time zone, unless a time zone value is also stored in another property of the object. H
Decision tree Functionality We cannot redirect a rule to itself under Circumstance Value in the Options field of the Results tab. Avoid creating a circular set of redirections (A to B and B to A) because this causes an exception at runtime. H
Declare Trigger Functionality When there are multiple triggers on the same class(user defined/inherited), then the order in which the triggers fire is not guaranteed. Trigger activities should be implemented in a way where they are mutually exclusive and independent of each other in terms of functionality. H
Map values Functionality We cannot redirect a rule to itself under Circumstance Value in the Options field of the Results tab. Avoid creating a circular set of redirections (A to B and B to A) because this causes an exception at runtime. H
Activity Functionality When you use the History-Add method, use field values to support localizations. M
Activity Functionality Use @equals functions instead of '==' for string comparisons. M
Flow Functionality Always give the status of an assignment and the status of work in the assignment task parameters. M
Flow Functionality Do not hardcode the workbasket/router user name In the routing unless it is important. Use a parameter page instead. M
Flow Functionality Configure meaningful and readable audit information in a flow. For example, use a proper action description in the assignment task. Remember that whatever action comes in an assignment will be described in the work item history as “Assignment To” and the added text. M
UI rules Functionality Don't use fixed widths. For table-style layouts such as grids or tree grids, always set the width to 100%. This allows the display to adapt to the device the viewer is using. M
UI rules Functionality Make sure autogenerated controls have validation options. M
UI rules Functionality Improve the user experience by removing unneeded clicks, especially for tasks that are simple or frequently repeated. M
UI rules Functionality Use the field values for text displayed to users to support localization. M
UI rules Functionality To ensure client validation is working, enable client validation on the harness. M
UI rules Functionality 'Localize' should be checked on Section rules. M
Decision tables Functionality Specify the most likely outcome rows before you specify less likely outcome rows. M
Declare-Index Functionality Do not create declarative indexes for top-level Single Value properties. M
Rule-Utility-Function Functionality Use the String.Equals () or String.equalsIgnoreCase () Java method, not the == or != operators, to compare the value of a property to a literal string or to the value of another property. M
Circumstance-Definition Functionality List the more likely outcomes in rows at the top of the table. M
Circumstance-Definition Maintainability When circumstancing rules, use circumstance templates rather than circumstancing on properties to allow implementation layers to customize the templates. M
Exception handling Functionality Database calls (and other integration calls) should be handled by incorporating preconditions and transitions related to errors and exceptions. “Jump To Later Step” / “Exit Activity” should be used effectively in activities to handle exceptions. Evaluate raising appropriate PDC alerts when errors occur.
  • Usage of Obj-open, Obj-refresh-and-lock, Obj-open-by-handle, and Obj-Delete-by-handle requires the handling of lock acquisition failures.
  • Obj-save and Commit should handle potential DB transaction errors.
  • Connect- methods should handle the potential for connector failure.

Not handling an error may result in ungraceful errors.

Exception handling Functionality Error Flow should be implemented in all critical use cases. M
All rules Functionality Do not assume a clipboard page is available. Instead, perform appropriate verification checks before executing a data transform or activity. M
Activity Functionality Do not use obj-save to save rules. Use "call pxUpdateRecord/pxCreateRecord" or "Call Save" instead. M
Section Functionality Using Refresh When and Refresh Other Section.

Use Refresh When whenever possible, especially for read-only references that need to remain synchronized with data on the server, as it declares dependencies ("This section needs to be updated when .x changes"). When this is not possible (for example, if you have editable references that are updated based on other input or based on untrackable inputs such as button clicks), use a Refresh Other Section targeted refresh.

Section Functionality Avoid Refresh section.

Refreshes interrupt the user experience. The user has to wait, the screen seems to hang until the section refreshes, and after the refresh is done, the user has lost focus and has to manually return to the original screen. Manage client-side interactions by using change tracker whenever possible. For example, instead of refreshing a section with a pre-processing data transform, call a data transform or use set value and set your visibility conditionals to evaluate on client.

Do refresh a section when:

  • Property values have been updated on the server and the new values must be reflected in the UI.
  • An action that causes a change to more than one property and that occurs only on the client, such as deleting a row, must be submitted.
  • Parts of the UI must be removed from the DOM because of other input.

Do not refresh a section when:

  • You need to submit user input. Instead, use post value.
  • You need to call a data transform or an activity after a user action.
  • You need to recalculate visibility, enabled/disabled state, or read-only state. Select the evaluate on client check box next to the expression field.

Judgment calls

  • You have a complex expression to set visibility, enabled/disabled, or read-only state requiring a When condition. Consider using a declare expression to provide a value for a property and conditionalize on changes to that declare expression.
  • You must handle style changes based on value changes.
  • You must validate input and potentially show messages related to various properties. Note that validation provided by the controls, combined with a validate rule on the flow action, should cover most situations.
Section Functionality Use set value to set flags. Use case: you have a property .pyIsThingVisible. Put the property in a hidden input field in the UI and use "set value 'pyIsThingVisible = true" (or false). This is lighter weight than using "Run data transform pzSetIsThingVisible" (and creating and maintaining the data transform). M
All rules Functionality Add Pega units for all the supported rule types.  Execute them during the development in branches and during the merge process. Look for 100% Unit Test passed before merging the branches. M
Report-Definition Functionality Consider the use of the Smart Info capability to enrich the value of reports. L
Data transform Functionality Avoid hardcoding pyWorkPage and pyWorkCover in data transforms and activities, as hard coding hampers the reuse of rules. L
Activity Functionality In case of unavoidable scenarios, if Page-Change-Class Method is used, then you should use DCR pattern rather than a hard-coded class. L
Flow Functionality As a best practice, use one of the following prefixes to support standard reports and maintain continuity in between your custom status and standard status values: New-, Open-, Pending-, or Resolved- L
UI rules Functionality Avoid using icons for controls. Use link text or a button for clarity and ease of localization. L
Section Functionality A general design/development approach should be that read-only display of a particular section is controlled outside of the section either through the harness in which it is included L
UI rules Functionality Bundle your transactions in minimum calls (ex: call activity and refresh section can be bundled). L
UI rules Functionality Input validation should happen on both the client and the server. L


Understanding and complying with case management best practices

Configuring resources - use job schedulers and queue processors instead of agents

Pega Cloud Services update checklist for Pega Infinity release 8.4.2 and later

Pega Cloud Services update process for Pega Infinity release 8.4.2 and later

Locatable pages are deprecated

Developer best practices using Pega Platform

Securing an activity

Handling data page errors by using a data transform

Best practices for design templates